1 thought on “Basic characteristics of Xiuyan Jade”

  1. Xiuyan Jade is not a single kind of jade because its material composition is complex and its physical properties and arts and crafts characteristics are different. According to the different mineral compositions, Xiuyan Jade can be divided into serpentine jade, tremolite jade, serpentine jade and tremolite jade mixture, of which serpentine jade is the main one. The infrared absorption spectrum curve shows the composition of serpentine jade, and contains a small amount of chrysotile and chrysotile. Tremolite is mainly composed of tremolite, and chlorite jade is mainly composed of chlorite. By means of microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis and differential thermal analysis, Xiuyan Jade can also be divided into serpentine jade, color jade and chlorite jade
    the mineral composition of serpentine jade is not consistent, for example: ① green serpentine jade is mainly composed of Li serpentine; ② Yellow serpentine jade, mainly composed of serpentine, also contains chrysotile and chrysotile; ③ White serpentine jade, mainly composed of leaf serpentine. Flower color jade can be roughly divided into two types: Flower spot jade and flower jade. Flower spot jade refers to the green patches in its white color. The green patches are composed of chloroplast and the white part is tremolite. Flower jade refers to the gray, black and blue purple spots in its white color, which are composed of black minerals and magnesite, and the white part is serpentine
    chlorite jade is dark green, green and light green, mainly composed of light oblique chlorite. Xiuyan Jade has dark green, green, light green, yellow green, gray green, yellow brown, brown, dark red, waxy yellow, white, yellow white, green white, gray white, black and other colors. The existence of such rich colors often makes Xiuyan Jade have extremely beautiful "clever colors". The depth of the color is related to the iron content. When the iron content is high, the color is generally dark; otherwise, the color is light. Jade also has strong waxy luster, glass luster, and some show grease luster; Slightly transparent to translucent, a few transparent. Its transparency is related to mineral composition and chemical composition. When Xiuyan Jade is composed of serpentine, its transparency is high. If the impurity content is 5% ~ 10%, the transparency is poor. When the content of iron and magnesium in Xiuyan Jade is high, its transparency is often poor; On the contrary, the transparency increases. The refractive index is 1.49 ~ 1.57. The hardness is 4.8-5.5, and the density is 2.45-2.48 g / cm3
    the research shows that its hardness is related to its own structure, and the section hardness of parallel fibers is greater than that of vertical fibers. For example, the hardness of serpentine jade in the parallel fiber direction is 5.82 and the vertical fiber direction is 5.61; The hardness of chlorite jade is 2.91 in the parallel fiber direction, 2.86 in the vertical fiber direction, and so on. Moreover, the hardness of Xiuyan Jade is also related to its chemical composition. For example, the greater the content of iron and the smaller the content of magnesium, the higher the hardness. Among the known jade species in China, Xiuyan Jade is mostly middle-grade jade because of its light weight and low hardness, and a small number of jade with excellent texture belong to middle and high-grade jade. In terms of chemical composition, due to the different mineral compositions and symbiotic combinations of different jade species in Xiuyan Jade, there are also great differences in chemical composition (table 12-30, according to team 7 of Liaoning Provincial Bureau of Geology and mineral resources): serpentine jade is relatively rich in magnesium, silicon and aluminum. Tremolite is relatively rich in silicon, calcium and magnesium, while chlorite jade is relatively poor in magnesium, silicon and aluminum. Serpentine has different chemical compositions due to the different gangue minerals associated with it. Generally, the chemical composition of pure serpentine jade is often close to the theoretical content of various components of serpentine minerals, while the content of various components of serpentine jade with poor texture and more gangue minerals varies greatly. If it is rich in silicate minerals, the content of SiO 2 and Cao increases and the content of MgO decreases. For example, tremolite serpentine jade containing tremolite contains 56.8% SiO 2, 24.36% MgO, 12.70% Cao, 0.51% Al 2O 3, 1.20% H 2O, etc. The research shows that the chemical compositions of the above serpentine jade, tremolite jade and chlorite jade are respectively close to the theoretical content of single mineral of serpentine, tremolite and chloroplast, especially the serpentine jade with good transparency is closer to the theoretical content of serpentine. As for the trace elements in Xiuyan Jade, serpentine jade is characterized by the high boron content (10-20 times) of near ore serpentine and magnesite. Among other detectable trace elements, arsenic, antimony, cadmium, germanium, silver and zinc are significantly higher than Clark's value, and their contents are similar to those of near ore surrounding rocks. The general trend of change is that the content of boron, chromium, copper and zinc gradually decreases from the ore body to the surrounding rock, among which the content obviously less than the carat value is three times less than that of chromium, one time less than that of nickel and one time less than that of cobalt
    (I) serpentine stone jade (Xiuyu, Huayu, etc.) properties: hardness: 4.5-5.5 degrees, density: 2.61 g / cubic centimeter, fire resistance: 1500-1600 degrees, color: green, yellow, white, red Black and other components: magnesium oxide (MgO) 42.1%, silicon dioxide (SiO2) 43.8%, calcium oxide (CAO) 0.15%, crystal water (H2O) 11.7%, iron oxide (Fe2O3) 0.64%
    (II) tremolite jade (Laoyu, hemo jade, Shibao jade) properties: hardness: 6.36-6.46 degrees, density: 2.91-3.1 grams / cubic centimeter, refractive index: 1.60-1.62, color: yellow white, green, green, black Sugar color composition: silicon dioxide (SiO2) 61.28%, magnesium oxide (MgO) 24.25%, calcium oxide (CAO) 11.56%, iron oxide (FeO) 0.39%, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) 0.86%, sodium oxide (Na2O) 0.16%
    (III) mixture of serpentine jade and tremolite jade (Jadeite) property: hardness: 4.91-5.83 degrees density: 2.66 g / cubic centimeter color: white green component green component: silicon dioxide (SiO2) 42.38% magnesium oxide (MgO) 43.60% iron oxide (FeO) 2.16% aluminum oxide (Al2O3) 0.18% white composition: magnesium oxide (MgO) 27.42% silicon dioxide (SiO2) 56.89% calcium oxide (CAO) 13.22% iron oxide (FeO) 0.37% it is known that Xiuyan Jade is widely distributed in Liaodong Peninsula and has a large output. As far as Xiuyan County is concerned, its famous BEIWAGOU mining area is a mining area with abundant resources, long mining time and large annual output. Its color is mainly light green, but also dark green and other colors. Xiuyan Jade deposits, occurrences or mineralization clues are also found in the area. The ore bearing strata are also carbonate rich strata of Dashiqiao formation of Liaohe Group in Proterozoic
    the name "Xiuyan" in the national standard GB / t16552-1996 "name of jewelry and jade" refers to Xiuyan Jade produced in Xiuyan County with the concept of local name. Xiuyu is produced in Hadabei Town, Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County, Liaoning Province, 21 kilometers away from the county seat, and distributed in BEIWAGOU and wangjiabaozi
    in 1992, a 260.76-ton jade block was found in Hadabei Township, which was transported to Anshan City. In October 1995, it was carved into a jade Buddha with exquisite craftsmanship. In 1996, the Anshan Jade Buddha garden covering an area of 20000 square meters was officially completed, becoming a famous tourist landscape. On June 18, 1996, on the hillside of Wagou mountain, Wagou village, Hadabei Town, a piece of Xiuyu with an outcrop height of 25 meters, a maximum diameter of 30 meters, a volume of about 24000 cubic meters and a weight of about 60000 tons was found. It is the largest Xiuyu found in the world so far. The Xiuyu pebbles in the river are called River grinding jade, which is a kind of high-quality jade material

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